Following recent comments from Supreme Court Justice Lord Kitchen, that current IP law is lagging behind advances in AI technology, Saiful Khan, partner and IP expert in electronics and computing at Potter Clarkson, asks, is it time for the UK to introduce a new category of short-term patent to help stimulate greater innovation from technology companies?
Drones are increasingly being used by police and fire departments for a variety of tasks, from giving better overhead visuals to assist workers on the ground, improving the safety of firefighters, even being used in hostage situations. But this is just the start of how Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will be able improve the performance of public safety officials.
In 2015 a startup in LA started to make waves with its use of UAVs in the insurance world. DropIn has continued to make progress, with its network of Droperators (drone operators) ready to survey and make an appraisal with live video streaming, facilitated by a UAV, significantly cutting down the time and financial investment normally associated with making a claim.
The UK has taken the official position to not promote the deployment of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS), although its definition of AWS leaves open the possibility of developing such weapons. International pressure groups, such as the Campaign Against Killer Robots implore countries across the globe to take a firmer stance on the issue, and are appealing to the United Nations Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW).
It was the largest disruption to air travel since the volcanic ash cloud from Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull descended upon the country in April 2010. Military assistance was called in, with some reports that it would be using Drone Dome, an Israeli counter-drone system. In the end, it was confirmed that an alternative system had been used in its place, as Drone Dome had not yet been delivered.
The Internet of Things (IoT) will provide a number of different challenges to privacy and data protection. Examining these issues are Dr Kevin Curran, senior member of the IEEE and professor of cybersecurity in the School of Computing and Intelligent Systems at the University of Ulster, and Adam Brown, manager of security solutions at Synopsys.
On Wednesday 5 October, President Trump signed the FAA Reauthorisation Act of 2018, after the Senate had given final approval to the five year reauthorisation for the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration). It passed the Senate by a 93-6 vote, and is noteworthy as being the first five-year bill to be passed since the 1980s.
India’s drone regulation has, to this point, been very ad-hoc and fragmented, resulting in a drone industry that has not been able to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the technology. On 27th August, India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) announced the country’s first Civil Aviation Requirements (CAR) that will go into effect on 1st December 2018.
Integrating drones into airspace is an issue facing regulators globally, as safety concerns are prominent, while the economic potential of the technology needs to be allowed to develop and flourish. Managing this traffic with an effective system occupies many companies, hence the launch of U-Space, an initiative to implement pan-European Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM).
Artificial intelligence is at the heart of India’s economic strategy, according to finance minister Arun Jaitley. As part of his budget speech for 2018-19, Jaitley recognised the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to transform economies and the need for India to strategise its approach in order to maximise the benefits of the technology.
The Journal of Engineering and Technology Management has conducted research into attitudes of driverless cars in a closed environment, analysing the underlying factors affecting trust in driverless cars. The technology is seen as being a huge disruptor in the next technology revolution but a lack of trust is a principal barrier to its wide-scale adoption.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming ever-present, integrating with everyday technologies as well as assisting the operations of huge global businesses. In the future it promises to revolutionise areas such as healthcare, education, and transport. In becoming so widespread, there emerges a need to ensure that AI behaves in an ethical manner to minimise harm and maximise benefits.
According to the US Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Aerospace Forecast Fiscal Report 2018-2038, air travel is in a strong place and will continue to grow over the next two decades. The report examines all of American aviation, including the emerging area of unmanned aviation, trends around the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) sector and is targeted at both hobbyists and commercial operators.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is powering China in its technological push. A law school in Peking University has opened a new research centre to examine how AI can impact China’s legal system. Meanwhile, law enforcement agencies have received a boost to their powers with AI-powered solutions for surveillance and monitoring. However, the recently enacted cybersecurity law raises some concerns beyond its stated jurisdiction.
Nesta has designed a programme called Flying High, in conjunction with Innovate UK, to develop plans to bring drones to five cities across the UK. Bradford, London, Preston, Southampton, and the West Midlands region (covering Birmingham, Coventry, and Wolverhampton) will be taking up the challenge to develop a path for the safe and effective integration of drones.
Mobile data forensics company MSAB has announced a new partnership with Kovar and Associates to expand the drone forensics capabilities offered by MSAB. David Kovar, the president and founder of Kovar & Associates, is a leading expert on drone forensics and he will serve as a subject matter expert and consultant to MSAB.
On 25 May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) hits the European Union (EU) in full, replacing the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. All member nations must have transferred it into their own national law by 6 May 2018. It will unify all the data protection and privacy laws across all member countries. In the run up to it taking full effect, companies are working out how best to comply.
Following on from its examination of the effects of technology in the public sector last year, independent think tank Reform has released a report called Thinking on its own: AI in the NHS. It highlights the areas in which AI is currently deployed in the NHS, what its future uses can be, and what legal challenges need to be overcome to reach that destination.
In what is becoming a hyper-competitive industry, the fortunes of premier drone manufacturers DJI and GoPro are in stark contrast. American company GoPro has announced its plans to exit the business citing competitiveness of the sector as well as increasing regulation. Meanwhile, despite recent concerns over security, Chinese company DJI has confirmed its place as a leader in the market with its latest product.
On 1 December 2017, AI experts Enigma Pattern broke the infamous Enigma code in just thirteen minutes in a live demonstration. In an event designed to demonstrate the endless potential of AI, from diagnosing medical conditions to rendering judgements on whether someone should get a loan and cracking history’s trickiest code, Enigma Pattern also showcased the rising power of cloud computing and data centres.
Last year, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) released a report called Ethically Aligned Design, written with the purpose of advancing the discussion of how artificial intelligence and autonomous systems (AI/AS) can be aligned to moral values and ethical considerations that prioritise human wellbeing. The organisation opened it up to commentary and feedback from the public.
The report “Growing the Artificial Intelligence Industry in the UK” by Professor Dame Wendy Hall and Jérôme Pesenti has come out of an industry-led review of how both industry and the government can create the conditions for AI to develop and innovate in the UK, as part of a broader Digital Strategy. It summarises the current level of AI activity in the UK, identifies the challenges to increasing that level of activity, and makes several recommendations to address those challenges.
The United Nations’ Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) met for the first time in November 2017, after their summer meeting was cancelled. They met for five days to open discussions on weapons systems that have the ability to identify and destroy targets entirely without human control. Such Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS) are said to be almost ready for deployment, driving the need to legislate their use and set international standards.
One of the globe’s foremost drone manufacturers, DJI, has set up a training programme for the development of civilian drones for public safety at the Technology Base in Twente, Netherlands. In preparation of the programme, DJI has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Space53, the Enschede-based public-private partnership for developing unmanned systems.
At the end of May this year, the European Parliament issued a paper, calling on the Commission to update the regulatory framework surrounding the area of robotics, with a request to consider that some forms of autonomous robots should be granted the status of “electric persons with specific rights and obligations”.
Recent experiments in AI have demonstrated how important emotions are to intelligence as well as highlighting how far there is to go. Talking with the head of Emoshape, a company that is creating Emotional Processing Units and examining attempts at implementing AI, Robotics Law Journal investigates.
Last month, the Robotics Law Journal examined the value of the drone market, estimated by PricewaterhouseCoopers to be $125 billion, in their report, ‘Clarity From Above’. Two companies have just announced advances in their drone capabilities that demonstrate the current and future value of drones, as outlined in the report.
James Connelly, Professor of Political Theory at University of Hull and Director of the Institute of Applied Ethics, has just presented a paper at the 2016 Euro-ISME conference and is the principal investigator of the ESRC funded project, ‘The Common Good: Ethics, Rights and Cyber Security’. He discusses some of the questions surrounding the ethics of cyber counter-terrorism and the implications for legal systems with the Robotics Law Journal.
The 2016 WeRobot Conference, hosted by the University of Miami School of Law in early April, raised some important questions. The conference was a great success, striking up a dialogue about the important issues in the world of robotics – from the status of Robots in US law to the unpredictability of driverless cars and whether robots should be allowed free speech.